Diagnosing Heart Failure
Written by: Linda Minton | Last reviewed: November 2019
- Ponikowski P. Voors A. Anker S., et al. ESC Scientific Document Group, 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC, European Heart Journal, Volume 37, Issue 27, 14 July 2016, Pages 2129–2200, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehw128.
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- Framingham Heart Failure Diagnostic Criteria. Available at: https://www.mdcalc.com/framingham-heart-failure-diagnostic-criteria#evidence. Accessed 10/4/19.
- DiBari M. Pozzi C. Cavallini C. et al. ICARe Dicomano Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Volume 44, Issue 8, 19 October 2004, Pages 1601-1608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2004.07.022.
- Fadi Shamsham, M.D., and Judith Mitchell, M.D., State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, Brooklyn, New York. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Mar 1;61(5):1319-1328.